libwebsockets Lightweight C library for HTML5 websockets
lws_fixed3232 Fixed point arithmetic

Lws provides reasonably fast fixed-point 32:32 arithmetic functions so code can be designed to work without floating-point support.

The underlying type is

typedef struct lws_fixed3232 {
int32_t whole; /* signed 32-bit int */
int32_t frac; /* proportion from 0 to (100M - 1) */
} lws_fx_t;

Either or both of whole or frac may be negative, indicating that the combined scalar is negative. This is to deal with numbers less than 0 but greater than -1 not being able to use whole to indicating signedness, since it's zero. This scheme allows .whole to be used as a signed `int32_t` naturally.

# Fractional representation

The fractional part counts parts per 100M and is restricted to the range 0 .. 99999999. For convenience a constant `LWS_FX_FRACTION_MSD` is defined with the value 100M.

It's possible to declare constants naturally, but leading zeroes are not valid on the fractional part, since C parses a leading 0 as indicating the number is octal.

For the case of negative values less than 1, the fractional part bears the sign.

Eg to declare 12.5, 6.0, -6.0, 0.1 and -0.1

static const lws_fx_t x[2] = { { 12,50000000 }, { 6,0 },
{ -6, 0 }, { 0, 10000000 }, { 0, -10000000 } };

There are some helpers

Helper Function
`lws_neg(a)` nonzero if a is negative in whole or fractional part
`lws_fx_set(a,w,f)` Convenience to set `lws_fx_t` a in code, notices if w is negative and also marks f the same

# API style

The APIs are given the storage for the result along with the const args. The result pointer is also returned from the operation to make operation chaining more natural.

# Available operations

const lws_fx_t *
lws_fx_add(lws_fx_t *r, const lws_fx_t *a, const lws_fx_t *b);
const lws_fx_t *
lws_fx_sub(lws_fx_t *r, const lws_fx_t *a, const lws_fx_t *b);
const lws_fx_t *
lws_fx_mul(lws_fx_t *r, const lws_fx_t *a, const lws_fx_t *b);
const lws_fx_t *
lws_fx_div(lws_fx_t *r, const lws_fx_t *a, const lws_fx_t *b);
const lws_fx_t *
lws_fx_sqrt(lws_fx_t *r, const lws_fx_t *a);
int /* -1 if a < b, 1 if a > b, 0 if exactly equal */
lws_fx_comp(const lws_fx_t *a, const lws_fx_t *b);
int /* return whole, or whole + 1 if frac is nonzero */
lws_fx_roundup(const lws_fx_t *a);
int /* return whole */
lws_fx_rounddown(const lws_fx_t *a);
const char * /* format an lws_fx_t into a buffer */
lws_fx_string(const lws_fx_t *a, char *buf, size_t size

div and sqrt operations are iterative, up to 64 loops. Multiply is relatively cheap since it devolves to four integer multiply-adds. Add and Sub are trivially cheap.